(WASHINGTON) – Welcome to “This Week in Blood,” a weekly snapshot of the hottest studies from each week’s issue of Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), hand-picked by Blood Editor-in-Chief Bob Löwenberg, MD, and Deputy Editor Nancy Berliner, MD. If you would like a PDF copy of any of the manuscripts highlighted below or would like to request an interview with the author, please email firstname.lastname@example.org
Activated platelets can deliver mRNA regulatory Ago2·microRNA complexes to endothelial cells via microparticles, Laffont et al.
Platelets play a crucial role in the maintenance of hemostasis as well as in thrombosis. In this week’s issue of Blood, Laffont and colleagues present the innovative concept that platelets may regulate gene and protein expression in nucleated cells by transfer of their microparticles (MP). The authors demonstrate that thrombin-generated platelet MPs contain micro-RNA (miR-223) that can be transferred to endothelial cells to modulate mRNA and protein expression. These results support the claim that platelet MPs may act as intercellular carriers of functional microRNA complexes and may regulate gene expression at mRNA and protein levels in endothelial cells.
Positive selection of mC46-expressing CD4+ T cells and maintenance of virus specific immunity in a primate AIDS model, Younan et al.
Despite continued progress in the development of novel antiretroviral therapies, it has become increasingly evident that drug-based treatments will not lead to a functional or sterilizing cure for patients with HIV. In this week’s issue of Blood, Younan and colleagues report on the potential utility of HIV/Simian immunodeficiency virus-resistant hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in an autologous setting in a nonhuman primate AIDS model. The investigators transduced an HIV entry inhibitor (mC46) in HSCs with the objective of developing infection-resistant cells. Animals receiving the transduced HSCs demonstrated increased CD4 counts, CD4/CD8 ratios, and increased numbers of HIV-specific T cells following viral challenge, resulting in the selective survival of mC46 transduced cells in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and the gastro-intestinal tract. These results demonstrate that HSC protection may be a potential alternative to conventional antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS.
Gain-of-function Lyn induces anemia: appropriate Lyn activity is essential for normal erythropoiesis and Epo-receptor signaling, Slavova-Azmanova et al.
Lyn is involved in erythropoietin (Epo) receptor signaling and is important for erythroid homeostasis. However, the downstream pathways influenced following Lyn activation and their significance to erythropoiesis remain unclear. This manuscript published this week in Blood describes comprehensive studies conducted in young and old mice on erythropoiesis in the presence of constitutive activation of Lyn that affects multiple signaling pathways in erythropoiesis in unexpected ways. The data reveal that LYN gene dosage and activity is critical for normal erythropoiesis and that a deviation in the level of Lyn activation alters Epo signaling, leading to the production of erythroid defects. The findings are relevant to diverse hematologic conditions ranging from hemolytic anemias and hypo-/hyper-proliferative conditions such as polycythemia vera to stem cell transplantation.
Blood (www.bloodjournal.org), the most cited peer-reviewed publication in the field of hematology, is available weekly in print and online. Blood is the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) (www.hematology.org), the world’s largest professional society concerned with the causes and treatment of blood disorders.
ASH’s mission is to further the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disorders affecting blood, bone marrow, and the immunologic, hemostatic, and vascular systems by promoting research, clinical care, education, training, and advocacy in hematology.
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